trench warfare facts

When allowed to choose their own weapons, many selected grenades, knives and pistols. Along by the high banks of the trenches thousands of tins are lying: bully beef, jam, soup, cigarette, sausage, etc. It later inspired the MG 30 and the MG 34 as well as the concept of the general-purpose machine gun. However, as a stalemate started to settle on the Western Front towards the end of 1914, the needs for a more elaborate system became apparent. [3] In early modern warfare troops used field works to block possible lines of advance. As trench warfare became the order of the day on the Western Front, the Engineer-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Brigadier George Fowke, proposed a deep mining operation in September 1915. The German dugouts were generally more sophisticated; one such dugout captured in the Somme Valley in 1916 was found to have toilets, electricity, ventilation, and even wallpaper. Enemy attacks on trenches or advancing soldiers could come from artillery shells, mortars, grenades, underground mines, poison gas, machine guns and sniper fire. FN M1900 pistols were highly regarded for this work, but never available in adequate quantities. Also if an enemy managed to enter the trench he could not simply fire straight down the line. In the New Zealand Wars (1845–1872), the indigenous Maori developed elaborate trench and bunker systems as part of fortified areas known as pā, employing them successfully as early as the 1840s to withstand British cannon, muskets, and an experimental poison-gas mortar.

This area had continuous shell firing and became a mass of mud in wet weather, making it further difficult to cross. Anti-gas equipment and procedures improved significantly during the war, to the point that gas attacks had become less devastating at the war's end. British regular divisions habitually named their trenches after units, which resulted in names such as "Munster Alley" (Royal Munster Fusiliers), "Black Watch Alley" (Black Watch Regiment) and "Border Barricade" (Border Regiment). 3.

Fires were lit in the support line to make it appear inhabited and any damage done immediately repaired. It was the industrialised weaponry of World War I that made trench warfare the norm rather than an occasional strategy. Frogs, spiders and lice were also pests that the soldiers had to battle daily. [17] Trench warfare also took place on other fronts, including in Italy and at Gallipoli. Each morning the soldiers would all "stand to."

The death becomes common thin in daily life. [19] To the French, the equivalent is the attrition of the Battle of Verdun in which the French Army suffered 380,000 casualties. Most of the trenches built followed a basic plan. They subsequently "dug in" to avoid losing any more ground. Minutes before the attack on Vimy Ridge the Canadians thickened the artillery barrage by aiming machine guns indirectly to deliver plunging fire on the Germans.

Both sides concentrated on breaking up enemy attacks and on protecting their own troops by digging deep into the ground. The mining skills could also be used to move troops unseen. [citation needed]. Listen to a recorded reading of this page. The machine gun was fed via a 250-round ammunition belt and could fire up to 500 rounds a minute. Black and brown cats dominated that place and they were as big as cats. 3. However, entrenching left the diggers exposed above ground and hence could only be carried out when free of observation, such as in a rear area or at night. Many trench systems were constructed within glaciers such as the Adamello-Presanella group or the famous city below the ice on the Marmolada in the Dolomites.

Not only were the soldiers supposed to drain out the water and repair the damages; but some are also known to have been trapped in the thick, deep mud and drowned. Between 90 and 270 metres (100 and 300 yd) further to the rear was located the third reserve trench, where the reserve troops could amass for a counter-attack if the front trenches were captured. These dummy trees, constructed by army engineers, protected the snipers, allowing them to fire at unsuspecting enemy soldiers. The 10th Battalion, CEF, averaged front line tours of six days in 1915 and 1916. A ledge, known as the fire-step, was built into the lower part of the ditch and allowed a soldier to step up and see over the top (usually through a peephole between sandbags) when he was ready to fire his weapon. London: Royal Artillery Institution, 1986, "Was the tunnellers' secret war the most barbaric of WW1? This was to stop shrapnel flying down the length of the trench and to soak up blast.

Title: “Trench warfare” - Magical Potion for Perfect History (Innovative Education) These included improvements in artillery, infantry tactics, and the development of tanks. They cleared surviving enemy personnel from recently overrun trenches and made clandestine raids into enemy trenches to gather intelligence. Two divisions would occupy adjacent sections of the front, and the third would be in rest to the rear.

Many people call it, Let’s get the information about the African American cowboys on Facts about Black Cowboys. At the First Battle of Cambrai in 1917, improved tanks in larger numbers demonstrated the potential of tank warfare, though German improvised anti-tank tactics, including using direct fire from field artillery, also proved effective. Breakfast was then served, at which time both sides (almost universally along the front) adopted a brief truce.

[20], Trench warfare is associated with mass slaughter in appalling conditions. On an individual level, a typical British soldier's year could be divided as follows: Even when in the front line, the typical battalion would only be called upon to engage in fighting a handful of times a year: making an attack, defending against an attack or participating in a raid. A basic wire line could be created by draping several strands of barbed wire between wooden posts driven into the ground. In the Decembers of 1916 and 1917, German overtures to the British for truces were recorded without any success. Heavy rainfall flooded trenches and created impassable, muddy conditions. The concave trench line facing the salient was called a "re-entrant."

The British lacked an official tactical doctrine, with an officer corps that rejected theory in favour of pragmatism. In the first six months of 1916, before the launch of the Somme Offensive, the British did not engage in any significant battles on their sector of the Western Front and yet suffered 107,776 casualties. This breakdown of duty would continue down through the army structure, so that within each front-line division, typically comprising three infantry brigades (regiments for the Germans), two brigades would occupy the front and the third would be in reserve.

Prefixing a feature with "Dead Man's" was also popular for obvious reasons, such as "Dead Man's Road" leading in to Pozières, or "Dead Man's Ridge" at Anzac.

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