Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe (Austria, Pyrenees etc.  This balance would remain in place until the Revolutions of 1848, during which liberal uprisings affected all of Europe except for Russia and the UK.
The United States and Western Europe  It spread from the Balkans along the valleys of the Danube and the Rhine (Linear Pottery culture) and along the Mediterranean coast (Cardial culture). Historically, religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art, culture, philosophy and law. Western Europe is made up of the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Monaco. This includes Åland (a region of Finland), two constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark (other than Denmark itself), three Crown dependencies, and two British Overseas Territories. The boundaries of Europe were historically understood as those of Christendom (or more specifically Latin Christendom), as established or defended throughout the medieval and early modern history of Europe, especially against Islam, as in the Reconquista and the Ottoman wars in Europe..
, The extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on the islands of the Mediterranean.. Other Indo-European languages outside the three main groups include the Baltic group (Latvian and Lithuanian), the Celtic group (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, and Breton), Greek, Armenian, and Albanian. Finally, and very soon afterwards, Laurasia itself split up again, into Laurentia (North America) and the Eurasian continent. From that time, the term designated the sphere of influence of the Western Church, as opposed to both the Eastern Orthodox churches and to the Islamic world. The first batch of countries joined in 1957, which included Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and The Netherlands.In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the UK joined. Instead the King was able to use the brief respite to rebuild his naval forces and by the end of 1589 Spain once again had an Atlantic fleet strong enough to escort the American treasure ships home." Some dependencies and territories are also part of Europe such as the Aland Islands, two constituent countries of Denmark, British Overseas Territories, and Svalbard. Southern Europe consists mostly of coastal countries that are close to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, including Spain, Portugal, Andorra, Italy, Vatican City, San Marino, and Malta. Southeastern Europe consists mostly of the countries in the Balkan region, such as Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro, Romania, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Greece. The state was consolidated under Ivan III the Great and Ivan the Terrible, steadily expanding to the east and south over the next centuries.  Over 60 million European soldiers were mobilised from 1914 to 1918. West Germany recovered quickly and had doubled production from pre-war levels by the 1950s. C. Scribner, p. 400, "One decisive action might have forced Philip II to the negotiating table and avoided fourteen years of continuing warfare.  However, the United Kingdom withdrew from the EU on 31 January 2020, as a result of a June 2016 referendum on EU membership.. Later that year, following the Munich Agreement signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy, Germany annexed the Sudetenland, which was a part of Czechoslovakia inhabited by ethnic Germans, and in early 1939, the remainder of Czechoslovakia was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, controlled by Germany, and the Slovak Republic.
Previously, these territories were under the successive control of Pechenegs and Cumans. Christopher Columbus reached the New World in 1492, and Vasco da Gama opened the ocean route to the East linking the Atlantic and Indian Oceans in 1498. A year later England tried unsuccessfully to invade Spain, allowing Philip II of Spain to maintain his dominant war capacity in Europe.
 The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people (mostly civilians) during the war, about half of all World War II casualties. Ferdinand Magellan reached Asia westward across the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans in the Spanish expedition of Magellan-Elcano, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the globe, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano (1519–1522).  According to some sources, this rate is higher among Muslims in Europe. There exists a political movement favoring the evolution of the European Union into a single super-federation encompassing much of the continent. The richer states tend to be in the West; some of the Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia. Some of these (Alps, Pyrenees) are oriented east–west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior.  Eventually the Frankish tribes were united under Clovis I.  Formal recognition of the de facto independent principalities of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania ensued at the Congress of Berlin in 1878.  Similarly, northern parts of Scotland have a temperate marine climate. The geology of Europe is hugely varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area), making it the second smallest continent.
 Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor", while Beekes considers a connection to Semitic languages improbable.
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